Thursday, December 6, 2007

C++ Interview Question-1

What are storage qualifiers in C++ ?
They are..
Const keyword indicates that memory once initialized, should not be altered by a program.
volatile keyword indicates that the value in the memory location can be altered even though nothing in the program
code modifies the contents. for example if you have a pointer to hardware location that contains the time, where hardware changes the value of this pointer variable and not the program. The intent of this keyword to improve the optimization ability of the compiler.
mutable keyword indicates that particular member of a structure or class can be altered even if a particular structure variable, class, or class member function is constant.
struct data
char name[80];
mutable double salary;
const data MyStruct = { “Satish Shetty”, 1000 }; //initlized by complier
strcpy (, “Shilpa Shetty”); // compiler error
MyStruct.salaray = 2000 ; // complier is happy allowed
What is reference ??
reference is a name that acts as an alias, or alternative name, for a previously defined variable or an object. prepending variable with “&” symbol makes it as reference. for example:
int a;
int &b = a;
What is passing by reference?
Method of passing arguments to a function which takes parameter of type reference. for example:
void swap( int & x, int & y )
int temp = x;
x = y;
y = x;
int a=2, b=3;
swap( a, b );
Basically, inside the function there won’t be any copy of the arguments “x” and “y” instead they refer to original variables a and b. so no extra memory needed to pass arguments and it is more efficient.
When do use “const” reference arguments in function?
a) Using const protects you against programming errors that inadvertently alter data.
b) Using const allows function to process both const and non-const actual arguments, while a function without const in the prototype can only accept non constant arguments.
c) Using a const reference allows the function to generate and use a temporary variable appropriately.
When are temporary variables created by C++ compiler?
Provided that function parameter is a “const reference”, compiler generates temporary variable in following 2 ways.
a) The actual argument is the correct type, but it isn’t Lvalue
double Cuberoot ( const double & num )
num = num * num * num;
return num;
double temp = 2.0;
double value = cuberoot ( 3.0 + temp ); // argument is a expression and not a Lvalue;
b) The actual argument is of the wrong type, but of a type that can be converted to the correct type
long temp = 3L;
double value = cuberoot ( temp); // long to double conversion

What is virtual function?
When derived class overrides the base class method by redefining the same function, then if client wants to access redefined the method from derived class through a pointer from bass class object, then you must define this function in base class as virtual function.
class parent
void Show()
cout << “i’m parent” << parent_object_ptr =" new">show() // calls parent->show() i
now we goto virtual world…
class parent
virtual void Show()
cout << “i’m parent” << parent_object_ptr =" new">show() // calls child->show()
What is pure virtual function? or what is abstract class?
When you define only function prototype in a base class without and do the complete implementation in derived class. This base class is called abstract class and client won’t able to instantiate an object using this base class.
You can make a pure virtual function or abstract class this way..
class Boo
void foo() = 0;
Boo MyBoo; // compilation error

What is Memory alignment??
The term alignment primarily means the tendency of an address pointer value to be a multiple of some power of two. So a pointer with two byte alignment has a zero in the least significant bit. And a pointer with four byte alignment has a zero in both the two least significant bits. And so on. More alignment means a longer sequence of zero bits in the lowest bits of a pointer.

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